Therapeutic apheresis in veterinary

A. By types of animals on the basis of anatomical and physiological characteristics of the structure of the most popular guess to use the device in the treatment of dogs and horses, to a lesser extent cats, and others small animals, taking into account the blood volume, the size of the peripheral veins, the commercial value of the procedure and the animal. 

B. On the etiology of diseases: infectious and parasitic diseases (piroplasmosis, hemobartonelles, parvovirus enteritis) It needs to reduce toxicity with products of inflammation, drugs, immune complexes, to increase acceleration and percent recovery. 
Internal no infectious diseases: often arising in connection with the not right content and feeding the animals (various kinds of allergic dermatitis, atopy, chronic and acute disorders of the liver and kidneys in dogs; breed, genetically transmitted disease, "Shar-Pei Fever" porto-caval shunt of Yorkshire Terriers, rheumatoid lesions hooves and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in horses). 
Surgical diseases (decrease intoxication caused by the underlying diseases and anesthesia, reducing the risk of postoperative acute renal failure, pyometra, volvulus of the stomach, bowel obstruction). 

C. On demand: the last 3-4 years in veterinary medicine "seen" a clear demand for improving the quality and efficiency of service, become more and more popular methods of diagnostic imaging and investigations (ultrasound, ECG, X-ray, biochemical studies, cytology, histology, and so on. 

D. Since the introduction of these qualitative changes in veterinary plasmapheresis is timely and up to date!          
The choice of methods of therapeutic apheresis, 
depending on the nature of the disorder 
DiseasesCharacterdisordersTreatment options 
 
1Infectious and parasitic diseases (piroplasmosis, 
hemo-bartonellosis 
parvovirus enteritis, 
etc.)
Intoxications, both the infection and inflammation products, and drugs.  1 Hemosorption – detoxification with the "capture" of circulating pathogens. 

2 Plasma exchange 
-  Detoxification and immune stimulation. 
 
3 Laser irradiation 
of blood – immunostimulation. 
 
2Acute and chronic liver and kidney disease ("Shar pei fever”, portocaval shunt Yorkshire terriers 
 
Intoxication caused by hepatic-renal failure on the basis of a genetic predisposition or toxic effects of drugs, toxic substances. 
 
1 Plasmapheresis 30% CPV with reimbursement only solutions. 

2 Plasma exchange 70-100% CPV in acute lesions of the liver and kidneys of reimbursement "donated" plasma. 


3 Hemosorption. 

4 Laser irradiation of blood 
 
3Internal diseases caused by improper maintenance, feeding, allergies. 
 
Allergic dermatitis, atopy.  1 Plasmapheresis 30% CPV. 
2 Hemosorption. 
3 Laser irradiation 
of blood  
4Rheumatic diseases of the joints (the horses' hooves) 
 
Swellingin the joints, 
their deformation 
 
1 Plasmapheresis 30% CPV. 

2 Laser irradiation 
of blood 
 
5Obstructive pulmonary diseasein horses 
 
Lesions of bronchopulmonarysystem. 
 
1 Plasmapheresis 30% CPV. 
2 Hemosorption. 
3 Laser irradiation 
of blood  
6Postoperative complications  Intoxication and septic complications caused by both the underlying disease and anesthesia with acute renal and hepatic failure, intestinal paresis, endometritis, osteomyelitis) 
 
1 Hemosorption 
2 Plasmapheresis 
3 Laser irradiation
7Poisoningcaused by the"rat poison", etc.Severeintoxication, 
multiple organ failure 
 
1 Plasma exchange 
2 Laser irradiation

      
Modern technologies in veterinary medicine. 
Which diseases requires the use of therapeutic apheresis? 
  
Most diseases accompanied by the accumulation of toxic products in the body that appear natural "treatment facilities" of the body – liver, kidneys. Any condition in which the natural detoxification mechanisms fail (hepato-renal failure) or the concentration of toxic substances prohibitively high (poisoning, acute inflammation, allergies, etc.) require the use of methods of therapeutic apheresis, particularly plasmapheresis. 

Some methods of therapeutic apheresis in veterinary and medical practice used since ancient times: the use enterosorbents, appointment of the emetic, laxative, choleretic and sweatshops drugs and also perform of bloodletting, but now, with the development of scientific and technological progress, it includes methods for blood purification by sorption or filtering methods remove some of the plasma from the circulation, followed by reduction of the blood volume (plasmapheresis). 
The process of accumulation of pathological ingredients long, it takes weeks and months. Therefore, if not eliminated etiological factors disease, repeated courses of plasmapheresis, for example twice a year, it is possible to keep patients in remission sufficiently controlled. 

  Infectious diseases. 
In all cases, after a viral infection (plague, parvovirus enteritis, viral hepatitis, adenovirus et al.) in the body for a long time delayed toxic pathological products. 
Plasmapheresis allows us to derive toxic purged from the body and to maximize the recovery of the function of the affected organs and systems. The result of plasmapheresis is a reduction of bilirubin, ALT, AST, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, immune complexes. 

  Babesiosis of dogs. 
Babesiosis (piroplasmosis) of dogs is accompanied by extensive hemolysis and accumulation of toxic products in the blood. Even after the elimination of the pathogen it is necessary to correct homeostasis of the internal environment. In the pathogenesis of toxic effects of the disease plays an important role intensification of free radical peroxidation of the cell membranes components also. Damaged cell proteins become antigenic properties and provoke an autoimmune reaction. As a result of the processes affected tissue of the liver, kidney, spleen and pancreas. 
In addition, a direct toxic effect of the high concentration of bilirubin in the blood leads to the development of encephalopathy, and free hemoglobin from the destroyed red blood cells blocks the filtration function of the kidneys. The emerging state of endotoxemia is an indication for urgent application of plasmapheresis as a method of detoxification therapy. It was appointed to the background of the medical treatment. 
Plasmapheresis reduces bilirubin and free hemoglobin in the blood, normalizes ALT, AST, and other biochemical parameters of blood, improves the general condition of the animal. 
For the prevention of persistent lesions of vital organs is advisable to dogs who have had piroplasmosis, perform plasmapheresis 2 times a year during the first two years after the removal of the causative agent.

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